Aaron Hoos’ weekly reading list: ‘Government money, dumb money, and too much money’ edition

Aaron Hoos: Weekly reading list

I’ve had an interesting relationship to money in my life: Growing up, my parents didn’t have a lot of it so I really noticed a divide between the haves and the have-nots, and definitely felt that I was firmly among the have-nots. I developed the idea that I’d never achieve “have” status. When I was a stockbroker, the guy who trained me said: “Money isn’t the most important thing in the world. It’s second to oxygen” — a quote that I have pondered and debated in my mind since hearing it. It reveals a humorous truth and a dark side as well. Today, I work with people who make a ton of money. I make more than I need yet I still have a weird “have-not” relationship with money. It’s weird. Okay, psychologists, you can start analyzing.

Here’s some money-related stuff I’ve been reading this week:

4 qualities that a junior resource stock speculator needs

I think there’s a rule in the stock market that says: “If you buy a junior resource stock today, it will immediately decline and then falter for quite some time.

I’m joking, of course, but I think most junior resource investors will tell you that this has happened to them at least once (more likely: a dozen times).

I love junior resource stocks but they are not easy stocks to own! If you own junior resource stocks, or think you might like to own them, here are 4 qualities you’ll want to have. Trust me when I tell you: If you don’t have these qualities, don’t invest in junior resource stocks!!!


It sounds like an oxymoron to put “passion” and “due diligence” in the same sentence. However, junior resource stocks are speculative and there are a lot of unknowns when investing in them. You’ll reduce the risks and increase the potential of gains by doing your due diligence first. Don’t make the mistake of just investing because someone you know has also bought that stock and is doing well with it.

Also: Due diligence is not a one-time even that you do once just prior to buying a stock. I believe due diligence is something you need to do over and over and over again — before you buy, before you sell, and regularly in between. Due diligence activities should be “triggered” by your own decisions and by external market forces. You should always be asking yourself: “Does this event change the reason that I bought the stock in the first place?”. Click here to learn how to do due diligence on a junior resource stock.


There are many many many good people in the junior resource industry. They mean well, they’re hardworking, they’ve made some exciting discoveries, and they have some good insight to say. But there are the losers, too; the ones who see a junior resource stock as a great way to make some fast cash from an IPO before letting the company fall in value, or those who pump and dump stocks, making money on the gullibility of investors rather than the stock’s fundamentals. You need a very sensitive BS-O-Meter that can detect the slightest whiff of something being off.


I almost didn’t include this one because it is the most depressing of them all. But junior resource stock speculators should really be investing money that they can afford to lose. I’ve seen too many people who dump their life savings into stocks, only to watch those stocks decline. Don’t do it! The entry point to buying juniors is pretty low. So buy only with money you can afford to lose. This isn’t an alternative to buying a lottery ticket.


This is probably the biggest one. It was originally inspired by Rick Rule of Sprott Resources, an articulate thinker in an industry where those qualities are far to rare. He referenced courage in a talk he gave at an industry conference a couple of years ago and although he didn’t go into great detail about it, I think he was referring to these two types of courage.

Investors need courage to look past the unknowns: There are many unknowns in the industry and anything from politics to natural disasters to public sentiment can suddenly shift the stock price. So you need to do as much due diligence as you can to eliminate as many of the unknowns as possible, and then you need courage to live with the rest of the unknowns.

Investors need courage to act when their emotions are advising something different: All too often (and even in stocks that aren’t junior resource stocks), investors will buy when the price is high because everyone is excited about the stock, and then they’ll sell when the price is is low because they’re afraid of losing even more money. This all-too-common practice (ironically, even among conservative investors) is the exact opposite of what should happen. Investors should buy when prices are low and sell when prices are high. Of course, that sounds good in theory but it’s much harder to do in practice. Write down the reasons you bought a stock and then remind yourself of those reasons when you’re wondering “should I sell this stock?


Investing in junior resource stocks is not for the feint of heart. It’s not for the weak-willed or people who love to jump on bandwagons. Only invest if you have these 4 qualities! I think it’s fun. But it’s also worrisome and time-consuming and mind-boggling at times! Invest at your own risk!

11 reasons why I love junior resource stocks

Junior resource stocks are companies that explore and develop mineral/metal resources. Junior resource companies do one or more of the following activities: They get a property, explore for a particular metal, and then (if they find something worthwhile) they develop the mineral resource into a mine that generates cash flow.

Here are 11 reasons why I love junior resource stocks.


The junior resource industry is highly entrepreneurial with a lot of businesses starting all the time. All that is required is a promising property and you can pretty much set up a junior resource company. That doesn’t mean people are going to invest in it, of course, but it does create some really exciting buzz that I absolutely love about the industry.

(Naysayers will point out that the highly entrepreneurial nature of the industry increases the risk of scammy companies that are bad investments. This is true. But it is also usually resolved when investors do their due diligence. In my opinion, the advantages outweigh the disadvantages.)


While there are resource stocks that have very high stock prices, many — perhaps most — resource companies are “juniors”. That is, they are small companies with penny stock prices. This allows investors to get in at a low price, spending just a few hundred dollars to get a few thousand shares.

(Yeah, there’s a downside here, too: Penny stocks don’t have far to go to fall to zero. So if you’re going to invest, make sure you can afford to lose your money. In my opinion, a few hundred bucks isn’t a big deal to lose. I’m not putting my life savings in one penny stock!)


There are risks to any junior resource stock: The underlying commodity might suddenly bottom out. Investor sentiment might turn away from the commodity or the company or the region they are operating in. Political risk is always present — in third world countries, you might end up with a crackpot dictator who takes over the mine; in first world countries, you often end up with excessive regulatory obstacles. I like all of these risks! They pose a challenge for the junior resource company and for investors. Smart companies need to figure out how to overcome those risks as much as possible; smart investors need to figure out ways to mitigate against those risks through their investing.


If you buy a blue chip stock, the possibility exists that the stock might go up. But the moves aren’t huge. It might climb slowly, advancing a small percentage each day when it does go up. These stocks are famously stable. But in a junior resource stock, stocks worth pennies can increase at a greater rate — going up by a significant percentage when they do rise.


Stocks fall, too. And people who want safety and security in their stock investments will choose blue chip stocks because they aren’t likely to fall as much. But just as junior resource stocks can climb dramatically, they can also fall dramatically, too. However, since they have a low buy-in, you are only going to lose as much as you invest. So if you invest only as much as you can afford to lose then your losses are limited.


The market is the jungle and the strong survive while the weak perish. What influences strength and weakness is the fundamental rule of the markets: Supply and demand. The more you understand supply and demand, the better you’ll do in junior resource stocks. Supply relates to how much of the commodity is being readily mined and stockpiled; demand relates to how the commodity is being used. Increases in supply feed demand and drive the commodity prices down, which makes it less viable for a junior resource stock to operate; Increases in demand eat supply and drive the commodity prices up, which makes it more viable for a junior resource stock to operate.


In general, the demand for minerals is there so a well-chosen junior resource company that is focusing on a specific in-demand mineral has the potential to do well. Minerals aren’t going out of style. Yes, specific minerals might rise or fall in price because of supply and demand but minerals as a whole will always be needed. It is the responsibility of the investor to figure out what minerals will be in demand and to invest accordingly.


There are many penny stocks out there, not just junior resource stocks. There are tech and biotech and greentech, for example. The problem is, I don’t understand them. I’ve spent some time studying the resource industry and junior resource stocks in general so I’m comfortable working in this industry.


I love due diligence. I love to roll up my sleeves and research companies to find out what makes them tick. It’s not easy and other people don’t like doing it, which is probably why I like doing it all the more. Here’s a blog post I wrote about how to do due diligence on a junior resource company. While you can’t eliminate all risks with due diligence, you can identify many of them and that allows you to deal with them as much as possible. The other risks (the ones you can’t mitigate) are just part of the fun.


Junior resource stocks are basically their own category but within that category are sub-categories: You might specialize by mineral type (gold, silver, graphite, etc.), geographic location of mines (South America, Africa, etc.), where in the mine lifecycle a company operates (explorer, developer, etc.). By identifying a few specializations, investors will feel far more comfortable navigating the complex supply/demand equation because they are more familiar with a specific mineral.

Of course that doesn’t mean you don’t invest in other sub-categories, but a specialization helps you to focus bit.


I also love junior resource stocks because they have many opportunities for success, which (in turn) impacts the stock price. The most basic path to success for a junior resource stock is to find a resource and mine it, eventually earning cash flow from the production of the mineral. But that’s not the only way they can succeed. They can be a prospect generator, finding resource deposits and partnering with others who will bring those deposits to production; they can do a joint venture with a company to bring the deposit into production (which is similar to the prospect generator method but maybe with a bit more control over the process and skin in the game); they can sell the project to another company (we’re seeing a lot of this in the industry right now); they can be acquired by a major producer; they can split the company into multiple companies (which happened recently to one of my holdings — I know own three very good companies instead of one). There are even other creative ways to succeed as well — I just heard of one company that not only mines its own products but it also owns a mill that mills ore for nearby mines as well.

There are risks to junior resource companies and you should never trade these stocks if you aren’t comfortable with the risks. It’s not for everyone but I love the challenge, the opportunity, and the edge-of-the-seat excitement that comes with this kind of trading.

Yes, you CAN time the market (just not in the way you want)

You can't time the marketTiming the market is the most ridiculous idea out there. (Well, maybe not the MOST ridiculous idea out there but it’s pretty out there and it’s pretty pervasive so maybe it’s high up on the list).

The thinking behind timing the stock market goes something like this: “Oooh! I want to buy that stock. But the price is too high right now. Maybe I’ll wait until the price goes down.

And then when the price does go down, the thinking changes to: “Ouch! I want to buy that stock. But the price is low and what happens if I buy it and it goes lower?

This is true for real estate, too. A potential homebuyer might say: “Whoa! Houses are too expensive right now. I’m going to wait until home prices come down a bit before I buy.

But when the sellers market becomes a buyers market, the potential homebuyer now says: “Yikes! House prices seem to be declining. What if I buy and the house declines even further in value?

I hear this line of thinking OVER AND OVER AND OVER AND OVER. I heard it when I was a stockbroker and I hear it today in my work with financial and real estate professionals. I’ve tried to talk people out of this thinking but it can’t be done. (And the truth is, sometimes I fall into the trap, too!)

Like some optical illusion, the price of a stock or a property is never perfect right now and investors believe that by waiting, they can buy it at a “better” time.

Unfortunately, there never is a better time. EVERY price point has its advantages and disadvantages. Unfortunately, investors only see the disadvantages to buying now (regardless of price point) and the advantages of buying later (regardless of price point)… and they don’t seem to remember what they said only a few months ago when the price was different.

And waiting for a market bottom or market top is impossible because it takes months of data from indicators (including lagging indicators which come after the event) to prove a market peak or valley.

Timing the market is a fools game because investors and homebuyers are always looking for the perfect price point (even though they often can’t identify what that price point is and, even when they do, they fail to act when the price reaches that point).

Timing the market is ridiculous idea and a fools game… but it’s not impossible. You just have to rethink what you mean when you want to time the market.

Joe Average and Jane Average (Mr. and Ms. Average to you) try to time the market but they fail. There are people who CAN effectively time the market. I’m talking about short term traders. Short term traders (day traders and swing traders in the stock market, and real estate investors such as flippers in the real estate market) can time the market and many of them do pretty well at it.

Here’s why some people can time the market but most people fail at it:

  • Information volume and prioritization: Successful market timers do it effectively because they receive a barrage of information and they filter out what they don’t need. Compare this to Mr. and Ms. Average who glean tidbits from headlines or from the half-wits around the watercooler at break time and act on each piece of limited info that they get, as if the latest piece of information is the most correct.
  • Entries AND exits: Successful market timers consider both entry and exit positions before they buy. To a successful market timer, an “expensive” stock is still cheap if the price goes up and a “cheap” stock is still expensive if the price ends up going down. The same goes for those in real estate. It doesn’t really matter what the entry point is… it’s how much you can sell it for afterward when you are ready to sell. Compare this to Mr. and Ms. Average who likely intend to hold their stocks for decades and who will have to live in their house. They are making entry-only decisions and forgetting that there are other (hard-to-measure) aspects to owning these assets.
  • Mindset: Successful market timers view the (financial or real estate) markets as their “business”. They make money from it. Therefore, they make decisions from a business perspective. The Average family, on the other hand, is looking at buying stocks for their retirement portfolio or their next home and they are trying to weigh their decisions on a much more personal level, which makes the stakes seem higher.
  • Buying a range instead of a single price point: Successful market timers don’t look to one specific price point as THE bottom or THE top. Rather, they expect to buy a range, buying through the bottom and selling through the top and fully realizing that they might miss a few points here or there but overall they are hitting it at the right time. Mr. and Ms. Average, though, see every single low price point as a question (“is this the bottom or will it get worse?”) and every single high price point as the top (“is this the top or will it continue to climb?”). In a way, they are making a technical trading decision without any technical information.

Don’t bother trying. You cannot time the market… at least, not in the way that you want to time the market.


Image credit: 2020VG

The error of the “good investment”

I run a free graphite metals investment e-course and one of the questions I get asked pretty regularly from subscribers and non-subscribers alike is: “Which stock is a good one to invest in?”

This question scares me!

Sure, the question is asked with the very best intentions. People want to find good stocks to invest in and they look to people who might know a bit more than they do to help guide them. Fair enough; I get that.

But best intentions aside, this is a scary question and I’m always alarmed when I’m asked for this advice. Here’s why:


The people who ask me this question are not people I know really well. They are people who have connected with me online — usually via email, and usually because of my connection to the graphite e-course. How can I possibly know what is a good investment for them? I’m a very risk-tolerant investor so I don’t mind investing in stocks that are far more speculative than others. And our timelines might be different — on some stocks I’m willing to watch in the short-term while with other stocks I’m fully expecting to hold for months or even years.

To give you an example: I bought a speculative junior resource stock that I liked. The stock was cheap but I’m confident about the trajectory of the company and expect to hold the stock while they go through the complicated and time-consuming permitting process. But a friend asked me what I was investing in, I told him, and he bought this stock too. Unfortunately, it has dipped a bit in the recent resource market dip and he’s getting panicky. He complains about the investment and I expect he’ll be selling it shortly at a loss.

So if that’s the case for my friend, it is certainly going to be an even greater issue for people I don’t know!


The other reason that I’m scared by the question “what’s a good investment?” is that the market changes. Investments come and go. There was a time when Research In Motion seemed like a good investment. There was a time when Berkshire Hathaway didn’t seem like a good investment. Apple seems like a magical do-no-wrong investment right now but that won’t last forever (sorry to burst your bubble).

I remember working at an investment tele-center helping self-directed investors buy their stocks. One guy was stockpiling gold like crazy. I was fascinated because no one else was doing it. Everyone else at the tele-center laughed at the guy. This was in 2000, when gold was about $275/ounce. Today, it’s over $1600/ounce.


When someone is looking for a good investment, there is something very interesting going on. They are looking for a stock that is going to go up in price. And they don’t mind buying it if they are confident that the price is going to go up. However, most average investors look at past performance to determine whether or not a stock is going to go up in price. Therefore, if a stock has been going down in price and it’s super-cheap, they might be reluctant to buy it because “what if it keeps going down?”

However, as Warren Buffett explains over and over, a cheap stock is exactly the stock that you want to buy. You should buy stocks when they are beat up. But very few people do this. Most people aren’t really looking for a “good” investment. They’re looking for an investment that has recently risen.

So I’m scared when people ask me to recommend a “good” stock. I never recommend anything (not only because I’m prohibited by law but also because my definition of “good” and their definition of “good” are not going to be the same).