Advanced Copywriting Strategies: Evoke Emotion That Leads To Action

This blog post is part of a series of blog posts about Advanced Copywriting Strategies — the next level ideas and methods that can help you become a better copywriter.

Aaron Hoos, Copywriter

“I cried when I read what you wrote.”

A client said that to me a couple years ago in response to a video sales letter I’d written.

It was a wake-up call for me and, looking back, I think it helped to elevate my skill as a copywriter by establishing a powerful benchmark that I’d never encountered before. Since then I’ve done a lot of writing for that client and I ask myself, “Would these words evoke the same emotional response?”

A basic/beginner copywriter is told to identify the benefits of a solution and create copy around those benefits. So, to borrow the often-cited example of a drill, most people would talk about the drill while the basic/beginner copywriter will (correctly) focus on the holes.

But is that all there is?

No. That’s a great start and it’s a skill that every copywriter (and salesperson) needs to develop and hone. But there’s a next level: rather than selling the product and its features… and rather than selling the solution and its benefits… the advanced copywriter will build an emotional connection with the reader and evoke that emotion through the copy.

Why Emotions?

So, why build an emotional connection with your client? What makes this an Advanced Copywriting Strategy, especially if you can write effective copy simply by selling the benefits of the product or service?

Well, what’s advanced in copywriting is basic in sales: Ask any salesperson how people decide to buy and they’ll tell you that people buy on emotion. Even purchases that seem to be made on logic are really made on emotion… and the logic simply backs up the sale and allows the customer to justify the purchase in their own mind.

Mediocre copy sells the drill.
Good copy sells the holes.
Great copy sells the feeling you get when you’re listening to your kids laugh with glee as they play on their new swingset, and the confidence you’ll feel that it will hold together securely so your children can play safely for years to come.

See the difference? The first is focused on the features; the second is focused on the benefits; the third is focused on the emotion of the result.

There is no logical sale. Even large sales (like houses and cars) are emotional; even B2B sales are emotional to some degree, usually driven by the emotions that the decision-maker hopes to get from the purchase.

So, the copywriter who becomes a master of emotion will create copy that sells. And this is exactly what I tell aspiring copywriters when they ask me what skills they need to become a great copywriter. It has little to do with the grammar; I always advise that they become masters of emotion by studying psychology.

Understanding Emotions

There are a lot of emotions out there. Can you become a master of each one?

This is an area I’ve been thinking about for years. Which emotions should I focus on? Which should I learn and master? Which are useful for sales?

In fact, you can see some of my past thoughts on emotion in copywriting (and in the sales funnel as a whole) in a blog post series I wrote a few years ago on the 7 basic human emotions. In my studies at the time I’d read that there were only 7 basic human emotions from which all other emotions were derived, so I wrote a blog post series to examine each emotion and how to use it in copywriting and sales funnels. It’s still a really valuable resource, IMO. You can bookmark the tag — 7 basic human emotions — or you may want to dig into each of the seven — anger, fear, disgust, contempt, joy, sadness, and surprise.

My thinking on the topic has not changed, although my exploration of emotions has prompted a lot of thinking and research since that series. And there’s a really powerful image that I think should be on every copywriter’s wall that helps you understand emotion more effectively.

It’s Robert Plutchik’s Wheel Of Emotions.

Wheel Of Emotions from Wikipedia (Public Domain work)

This depicts 8, not 7, emotions as the base emotions (closer to the center) — ecstasy, admiration, terror, amazement, grief, loathing, rage, vigilance. And as emotions fade in intensity or mingle with other emotions, you get different emotions.

Of course no list or map of emotions will be completely accurate but it’s a helpful starting point to think about and write to an emotional state.

Empathy Map

Okay, so you know you should be writing about emotions and you have a list of possible emotions as a starting point, what now?

Now you need to see what your reader is feeling or wants to feel. I’ll write more about the reader in the future but, in short, you need to do some analysis on what the reader feels so that you can connect with them effectively.

One of the best tools for that is Xplane’s Empathy Map. It’s a simple diagram that prompts you to consider what your audience is seeing, hearing, saying, thinking, and feeling. I’m not going to include a picture here because I believe the Empathy Map has a copyright attached to it but you can easily go to Xplane’s site and check out this blog post to learn how to use the Empathy Map and to download a really slick looking version of it, or just Google “Empathy Map” and see the very simple diagram for yourself.

Choose one emotion

Once you’ve done some thinking and research about emotions and what your audience might be feeling, then you need to choose one emotion and start writing your copy to evoke that emotion.

I suggest you choose one emotion because not only does that make it easier for you to focus and write, it also helps the reader stay on track and allows that one emotion to become the catalyst for change. If you bounce between (for example) happiness, sadness, frustration, contempt, joy, worry… then you’ll diminish the effectiveness of your copy.

The emotion you choose could be either tied to the problem or tied to the solution.

Problem-specific emotions are painful emotions that your audience is feeling now (or tends to feel now) while the solution-specific emotions are joyful/relief emotions that your audience wants to feel.

In spite of my recommendation above to only choose one emotion, it’s possible that you might start with a negative problem-specific emotion now and then transition to a positive solution-specific emotion at your call to action. However, if this is new to you then you may want to just start with one.

So, for example, you might start with a negative problem-specific emotion that your readers are feeling and you write your copy around it, and the call to action is to simply take that negative emotion away. Or, for example, you might start with the positive solution-specific emotion that your readers want to feel and you write your copy around it, and the call to action is to simply get that positive emotion. So, it is possible to deal with just one emotion in your copy.

The copy I mentioned earlier that made my client cry was about a client’s business strategy seminar that he was selling. And, the copy I wrote was focused on the negative problem-specific emotions and it reminded him of how hard it was in the early days of his business.

Build The Bridge

Once you know what emotion you want to use in your copy, it’s time to start writing.

One of the biggest challenges I face, especially in some topics or industries, is wondering: “How will I ever write about this problem effectively if I haven’t actually experienced the same problem?”

For example, as a real estate investing copywriter, I write for many different kinds of real estate investors. And, while I have a ton of experience in the industry as an investor, there are times when I need to write some sales copy for one of their audiences about a problem that I’ve never dealt with.

One example is foreclosures. I’ve never been through a bankruptcy or foreclosure, so how do I write about it? When I encounter this internal rebuttal in my mind, I think back to a professor in my undergrad degree who taught me psychology and counseling. Her name was Margi (yes, we had to call her by her first name) and she was a character! haha. I’m chuckling remembering her memorable classes. Anyway, she had been a professional counselor and someone asked her a similar question, “How can we counsel someone on one issue or another if we’ve never experienced that issue ourselves?”

I’ll never forget Margi’s response. She said, “I’m not married but I can counsel people on marriage because I’ve been in love and I’ve experienced loss.” (That was a shortened/paraphrased version but you get the point.)

You may not experience the exact problem or situation that your reader is experiencing but you likely have experienced the same emotion. So, before you write, access that emotion and consider all the things you felt and thought and said when you had that emotion.

I was able to write evocative copy about business struggles for my client because there was a time, nearly 2 decades ago, when I experienced similar things even though I’m in a different industry. The emotion was the same and I tapped into that effectively.

Word Pictures

Once you have accessed the emotion yourself, it becomes much easier to write. And, rather than writing about features and benefits, write word pictures about the emotion.

And here is where copywriters become creative writers. But you don’t want to simply pile on adjectives or adverbs; rather, you want to hold up a mirror to your readers’ lives and show them what they are feeling now or what they could be feeling (depending on whether you are using the problem-specific emotion or the solution-specific emotion).

A problem-specific emotional use might explore the following: Is your reader so frustrated about their problem that they are frozen? Don’t talk about the problem, talk about being frozen and what that means and what the result is and their emotions are about the result.

A solution-specific emotional use might look like what I already discussed earlier with the drill. Notice that the advanced copywriting version didn’t even mention the drill but rather discussed the glee-filled shouts of his children’s voices as they played on the swingset.

By creating these stories to make your point and to compel action, you will stir up the emotion for your reader and get him or her thinking about how to take action — either to eliminate the emotion or to achieve it.

Use the Empathy Map you created earlier to help you create copy that resonates with your reader. Look at what they are seeing, hearing, and saying and write about that as if it was happening to them. Look at what they are thinking and write about that as if you’re thinking the same thing. Look at what they are feeling and weave those emotions through all of your copy.

Become A Master Of Empathy

Empathy is the ability to understand an emotion that someone else is feeling and relate to the other person in that emotion. I’d go a step further and say that the true masters of empathy are those that learn to feel the same emotion that someone else is feeling.

Practice empathy with others (and use that ability for good to enhance your relationships, of course!) but then leverage that same skill in your writing to evoke emotions and then show that you can relate to your reader.

You will build trust with your reader by proving that you understand the exact emotion they are feeling and that you also feel it too… and then you can lead your reader toward action by showing them how you dealt with that emotion in the past.


  • Hold just one person in your mind and write to that person. The more real they are, the better.
  • Want to learn more about emotions? Wikipedia has an insanely useful and comprehensive guide right here.
  • People will more actively seek to eliminate pain than they will to achieve pleasure so there’s a good chance you’ll have better-converting copy by starting with a negative emotion. This isn’t always the case but it’s a good rule of thumb.
  • Learn to tell very short stories. Read one-sentence stories and even haikus for examples of emotionally-evocative language that communicates a story in very little language.
  • I’m not saying that your copy should be devoid of logic. You’ll follow a flow of logic to build the emotion, and, you’ll want logic because people will justify their purchase decisions with logic; and perhaps most importantly, you’ll want to include logical elements because people think they need them. However, the main thread of your copy is emotion.
  • The effectiveness of your copy is dependent on one thing: your ability to evoke the emotion to a strong enough degree that your reader either becomes desperate to stop it (the negative ones) or get it (the positive ones). If your copy is not converting, consider digging deeper and working harder to evoke stronger feelings.


Will your readers cry when they read your work? If not, go back and look at your work and consider what might help to raise the emotional quotient in your copy to better build an emotional connection and to evoke an emotional reaction from your client.


Aaron Hoos, writerAaron Hoos is a writer, strategist, and investor who builds and optimizes profitable sales funnels. He’s the author of several books, including The Sales Funnel Bible.

I’m Going To Leap From The Top Of This Very Tall Building…

Scarth Street is one of my favorite places in Regina (the city I live in).

It’s pedestrian-friendly, a great mix of old and new architecture, and there’s plenty of places to eat, drink, relax, and enjoy the surroundings.

And at the head of the pedestrian-only section of Scarth Street is the McCallum Hill Tower Centre, a 2-tower complex pictured below. (Check it out in Google Earth)

Well, on August 19 I am going to jump off the one on the right.

It’s 22-storeys down.

But not a free-fall, fortunately! ;)

I’ll be rappelling down the side of the building to raise money in support of Easter Seals, a really cool organization that helps Canadians with disabilities live active lives.

If you want to learn more or donate, check out the link below:

I’m pretty excited about it!


Aaron Hoos, writerAaron Hoos is a writer, strategist, and investor who builds and optimizes profitable sales funnels. He’s the author of several books, including The Sales Funnel Bible.

Most People Start Businesses This “Backwards” Way (Here’s What To Do Instead)

When it comes to starting a business, there’s the simple, straightforward way that is more likely to succeed… and then there’s the way that most people do it.

Aaron Hoos

When I was a kid, I wanted to start a business. I thought about it constantly!

And my thoughts always started in the same place: what should I sell?

When my mind drew a blank I thought I was destined for a 9-5 job!

Problem is, that’s the backwards way to think about it. Yet, that’s how many aspiring entrepreneurs (not just me!) start their thought process. They think about what they should sell first. They try to come up with a product or service. They try to invent a product or innovate a new way of doing something.

This doesn’t work because it’s so wide open. It’s too hazy of a starting point and could go in any direction (often the wrong direction!)

It wasn’t until I was well into my career as a freelancer — having already started and failed once as a freelance writer, then picked myself up and started again — that I realized the better way to start a business…

Here’s How To Start A Business — The Better Way…

Start with an audience. Find a group of people that you are familiar with, or have a network around, or who you can connect with.

Get to know them. Really well. Find out everything you can about them. (If you pick the right group of people, this will go fast because you already know them well.

Identify a problem they have. Everyone has problems, challenges, obstacles, unfulfilled goals. Find the biggest burning problems they have.

Solve that problem. Figure out how to solve their problem. Maybe through a skill you have, maybe through a product you can make or import, maybe through a connection you have in your network or a relationship you can go out to build.

That’s it.

What? Were you looking for something more complicated than that? It’s not more complicated than that but most people make it more complicated than that.

Just find a problem that you can solve, and solve it. Period. Build a sales funnel around that solution and boom! You have a business.

If you do that for your network of people, and then expand it out to serve other similar clients, you can build up a solid business that gives you a comfortable life… or even more!

And this method works because it ensures that people will more likely pay for your solution (compared to the alternative of you identifying something to sell but not finding anyone to pay for it).

Of course you’ll want to use your skills and other advantages to solve the problem. If you identify an audience with a problem that you can’t solve, either find someone else to solve it or find a different problem or even a different audience. There needs to be alignment between what your audience needs and what you can do. But the key here is to start with the problem and work backwards toward yourself.

For The Naysayers

Some of you will point out something like, “well my cousin’s friend’s uncle started with a product and he’s doing really well.”

Great. Good for him. There’s always an exception to the rule. But chances are, the product that he brought to market did already solve a problem for a specific audience, he just lucked out by not identifying the audience and their problem explicitly first.

I found the same thing in my first foray into freelance writing: I still made money; I still had clients. But I struggled (and ultimately failed) because I didn’t solve one audience’s problem. And then the second time I started freelancing, I lucked into an audience that needed my services. Only later did I realize that I should start with the audience and their problem… and as soon as I focused on that, my business shifted dramatically.

I see this happening all the time with entrepreneurs: the ones who start with the product will struggle and may or may not (probably not) succeed; meanwhile, the ones who start with the audience and their problem dramatically increase the likelihood of success.


If you want to start a new business or grow an existing one, I’m convinced that the fastest, simplest, and most profitable way to do it is to go backwards from the way everyone else is doing it. Start with an audience and their problem, and solve it.


Aaron Hoos, writerAaron Hoos is a writer, strategist, and investor who builds and optimizes profitable sales funnels. He’s the author of several books, including The Sales Funnel Bible.

Verbs For Bullets

Aaron Hoos

As a copywriter, I write a lot of bullets in my sales copy. Things like…

  • Discover the 4 mistakes that are holding your business back from doubling in size this year (one of these mistakes can be fixed in under a minute and can bump your income by 15% or more).

… that kind of thing.

Copywriters use a ton of these bullets. I love ’em and would happily write them all day long.

Problem is, even though bullets tend to follow a pattern (or, at least mine do), you have to make each one creative and fresh and compelling. Or else people won’t read them.

And it starts with a verb. I like to start every copywriting bullet with a verb so I’m collecting verbs that I can start my bullets with.

Here are the ones I like…

Verbs For Copywriting Bullets

Find out
Install (into your brain)
Network with
Rub shoulders with
Tap into
Put an end to

Thoughts About Bullets

Not all bullets are going to be perfect every time. Of course you need to consider who your audience is. And some copywriters will look at this list and suggest that some verbs are too boring while others are too weird (which may be true but sometimes a boring verb is useful if only to put more emphasis on the subsequent feature and benefit that the reader will get.

Bookmark this post and check back because I’ll add more as I think of them!


Aaron Hoos, writerAaron Hoos is a writer, strategist, and investor who builds and optimizes profitable sales funnels. He’s the author of several books, including The Sales Funnel Bible.

Advanced Copywriting Strategies: Why Do We Do What We Do?

In this series of blog posts I’m exploring Advanced Copywriting Strategies.

Aaron Hoos, Copywriter

A copywriter has one job: to sell the damn thing… whatever it is they need to sell.

That sale could be: get the prospect to call, click, subscribe, buy, whatever… and the copywriter worth his or her salt is the one who can get the most, best prospects to take action.

And the way to get the most, best prospects to take action is to persuade them to do so by figuring out what it will take to get them to take action.

A simple example (and a commonly cited one in the world of copywriting) is that people don’t want drills… they buy drills because they want holes.

Although that’s a funny little example, it points to the task of the copywriting to discover the underlying why and to bring it to the surface. All else being equal, an advertisement for a drill as a drill versus an advertisement for a drill as a device to make holes should result in more purchased due to the latter.

Of course it’s not just about the holes. There’s an underlying motivation for ANY purchase, and figuring out what that underlying motivation is, is primary work of a copywriter to fulfill their one job of selling the damn thing.

So, if that’s the one job of a copywriter then there is one question that every copywriter should ask themselves… a question they should keep in their heads at all times… a question that must drive their research, their writing, their testing.

That question, generally, should be: “Why do people do what they do?” That’s the foundational question that underpins all of copywriting. If you can figure out what motivates your prospect to act then you can use that as a tool to persuade them.

So, let’s answer that question:

Why do people do what they do? Let’s dig into various attempts at understanding motivation. This is not going to be comprehensive since, well, human motivation has been an object of study since the dawn of time. But we’ll look at some talking points that I think are helpful and influential.

Maslow’s Hierarchy Of Need

Abraham Maslow had a lot of good insight to share here, and Maslow’s Hierarchy of Need persists today as a go-to resource in the area of motivation. In short, he suggested that people have a series of needs: Physiological needs (thirst, hunger, pain, sex); safety needs (protection from the elements); love and belonging needs (the need to be in a relationship); esteem needs; and self-actualization needs. Maslow went on to say that each person needed to address the lower level needs before they could ascend up the ranks to the higher level needs. In other words, if you are dying of thirst in the desert, your thought is of crawling to water, not of how you can feel fulfilled at work.

A depiction of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs from Wikipedia

But is Maslow’s hierarchy enough? I know it is used as a tool by some copywriters to help them answer the key question of why do people do what they do. It is helpful and I have used it at times too.

But sometimes it can get pretty esoteric and when you’re writing a sales letter for a product or service, you might end doing what I’ve done and struggled with knowing which of levels your offer might fulfill, or worrying about whether your best prospects are at that level in the hierarchy, or trying to find words that match the level (since you might use different words at the “safety needs” level versus the “self-actualization” level.

Whitman’s Life Force 8

Drew Eric Whitman, a marketing consultant who wrote the excellent (if awkwardly titled) book Ca$hvertising had a great list in his book that I think is insightful.

He departs from Maslows’ hierarchy slightly and instead suggests that we are hardwired with 8 drivers, what he calls the “Life Force 8”. You can see hints of Maslow’s hierarchy in here, but these 8 are useful and accurate as the key reasons why people do just about anything…

1. Survival, enjoyment of life, life extension
2. Enjoyment of food and beverages
3. Freedom from fear, pain, and danger
4. Sexual companionship
5. Comfortable living conditions
6. To be superior, winning, keeping up with the Joneses
7. Social approval

Whitman’s list is good. It’s true, we are hardwired for those things, although I am curious about whether we are hardwired for the enjoyment of food and beverages or rather just hardwired to eat and drink… and the enjoyment is a bonus that we seek after but will happily give up. Ask me next time I’m stranded in the desert and I’ll let you know.

7 Enemies Of Survival

Whitman’s list reminded me of a list from a totally unrelated source but I think it’s instructive here: the 7 enemies of survival. I first heard about this in, of all places, 12th grade geography. I can’t remember why. But the teacher said the list and it stuck with me. Forever. Here I am nearly 3 decades later and I can rattle off the list no problem. (If only I could do that for stuff that was actually on the exam!)

The 7 enemies of survival are: pain, cold, thirst, hunger, fatigue, boredom, loneliness. And I wonder if these are the things we are hardwired to address.

This list doesn’t account for a human sexual drive or for social approval but I think this list can tell us a lot about the need to survive, since many people will go to great lengths in most cases to avoid any of these things.

Tony Robbins’ Pain/Pleasure Values

Tony Robbins (and others, but Robbins is a big proponent of this concept) simplifies the concept further, suggesting that the underlying driver in people’s lives is to pursue pleasure and avoid pain. That has merit. I like it. It may not always be true (there are scenarios when we choose the more painful approach), and it’s made more challenging by people’s misconceptions (such as the temporary desire of feeling good by eating junk food versus the long-term reality of the price that someone’s health pays for making that lifestyle a habit).

Still, this pleasure/pain motivation can be a mostly-helpful guide to help us understand human motivation. In most cases, people will take action to help them achieve pleasure and avoid pain.

Here’s My Take…

One concept that I’ve been thinking a lot about, which also simplifies many of the ideas above, is to say that people do anything for one of two reasons: for Preservation or for Position.

That is, they will take action to survive and preserve their life, and, they will take action to achieve a certain social position.

(This concept isn’t necessarily my invention; I think it’s culled and synthesized from many of the concepts I’ve discussed earlier in this post.)

It’s so simple and elegant and true. It fits nearly every scenario I can think of, and addresses the very things that Abraham Maslow, Drew Eric Whitman, and the 7 enemies of survival each address.

On its own, this Preservation/Position concept is good but I wouldn’t call it an Advanced Copywriting Strategy. However, I think we can elevate its usefulness and power, and transform it into a more advanced strategy by bringing together this concept with another one discussed earlier…

The 4 Ps of Motivation

We can actually make this far more useful if we combine Tony Robbins’ pleasure/pain concept with this preservation/position concept. If we put them onto a 2×2 chart, we end up with something very interesting, and way to instantly analyze any person’s motivation…

We all do things (EVERYTHING!) for any mix of the following 4 reasons:

We pursue pleasure in our quest for preservation and position, and we avoid pain in our quest preservation and position.

In fact, we rarely do just one but I would suggest that we do some mix–some percentage– of all four in every action we take in the day and every decision we make in the day.

For example, consider procreation: sex itself is the pursuit of pleasure while the avoidance of pain might be the desire to have babies because of a ticking biological clock; meanwhile, children can add pleasure by watching them grow and they can also help avoid pain in positioning by ensuring that someone will take care of you in your old age.

Nowadays, the care-for-elders isn’t as important of a survival strategy as it once was, so that may diminish as a motivational factor, but the other three factors remain significant (to some degree) for most aspiring parents.

This is a powerful tool for copywriters because it forces you to drill down and get an answer from all relevant angles to the most important question, Why do people do what they do?

When you are copywriting, think about why your prospect would buy, and run it through this simple 2×2 matrix to help you identify exactly what hot buttons you can press to convince your prospect to take action.


Aaron Hoos, writerAaron Hoos is a writer, strategist, and investor who builds and optimizes profitable sales funnels. He’s the author of several books, including The Sales Funnel Bible.